Doctoral studies lead to the award of a Doctorate (PhD). The general goal of doctoral studies is high-level specialization in strategic areas of knowledge and the promotion of fundamental research in various scientific fields with a view to strengthening the country’s scientific base. In the case of Universities that offer postgraduate courses it is essential to have a Post-graduate Diploma in order to obtain a Doctorate. Permission to prepare a doctoral dissertation at Universities which do not offer regular post-graduate courses is granted to applicants who meet certain prerequisites. The Departments themselves lay down the admission requirements.